. 2

. 3

. 4

. 5

: . 7

to-. 8

to. 9

. 10

. 15

. 17

. 18

I 22

Participle I . 22

Participle I 23

. 23

I . 23

II 26

Participle II . 26

Participle II . 26

 


 

, , , .

to read ,

to write , ;

to buy , ;

to sell , .

 

to, . to, , .

, , , . ( ).

 

:

1. :

I told him to post the letter. .

 

2 :

I asked him to speak slowly. .

 

3. .

: :

 

 

 

 

to ask

 

to be asking

 

to have asked

 

to have been asking

to be asked

 

__________

 

to have been asked

 

__________

------

: , , .

 

: :

to ask ,

to be asked ().


 

:

to be asking - .

to have asked , - ,

to have been asking , -

to have been asked () - .

 

1. to ask . , ( to) . - .

 

2. to be (Participle I) :

to be asking

 

3. to have (Participle II) :

to have asked

 

4. to be :

to have been asking

 

5. to be :

to be asked

 

6. to be to have been :

to have been asked

 

7. not :

not to ask

not to be asked

 

 

, :

drive a car in a big city is very difficult. .

 

, , :

I intended to go there. .

(, to go, I.)

Ask him to come early. .

(, to come, him.)

 

, , , , :

has a great desire to invite you to the party. .

I want to infrom him of her arrival. .

 

, , , , :

has a great desire to be invited to the party. , ( ).

I want to be informed of her arrival. , ( ).

: - " , ", .. .

 


 

, , , :

1. , :

I am glad to see you. .

I saw him enter the house. , .

 

2. .

may,

must,

should,

ought

 

to expect ,

to intend ,

to hope ,

to want

:

may come to-morrow. , , .

I hope to see him at the concert. .

I intend to go there on Sunday. .

 

3. - :

skate is pleasant. .

 

: , :

1. .

He does not take English lessons. .

Does he take English lessons? ?

 

2.

I shall do it. .

I said that I should do it. , .

 

 

, , , :

1. , :

seems to have finished his work. , , pa.

This writer is said to have written new novel. , .


 

2.

must

may

, :

must have forgotten about it. , , .

I don't know where he is. He may have gone

to Leningrad. , . , , .

 

should,

would,

could,

might,

ought

was (were),

, , :

should (ought to) have gone there. ( ).

You could have helped him. ( ).

He was to have come yesterday. ( ).

 

4.

to intend,

to hope,

to expect,

to mean

, , , :

I intended to have finished my work last night. ( ).

I hoped to have met him there. , ( ).


 

:

, , , :

That firm is reported to be conducting

negotiations for the purchase of sugar. , .

The weather seems to be improving. , , .

 

, , , , :

They are said to have been conducting

negotiations for a long time. , .

He is known to have been working on this

problem for many years. , .

 


 

to-

, to:

to speak ,

to buy ,

to read

to c and, to .

I intend to call on him and discuss this question. .

I asked him to telephone to me on Monday or wire. .

 

to , . to

to want ,

to wish ,

to mean ,

to try , ,

to allow ,

to be going ,

ought ,

to have ,

should (would) like

..:

wants me to go there to-night, but I don't

want to (: go). , , .

I was asked to take part in the trip, but I am not

going to (: take part). , .

The boy wanted to go for a bathe, but was

not allowed to (: go). , .

I didn't want to stay there, but I had to

(: stay). , .


 

to

to:

1.

must,

(could),

may (might)

need:

You must do it at once. .

can speak German. -.

May I come in? ?

Need he come here? ?

 

2.

to make ,

to let ,

to help ( ):

made me read this book .

I let him go there. .

Help me (to) do it. .

 

3.

to see ,

to watch ,

to hear ,

to feel

:

I saw her leave the room. , .

I heard her sing. , .

I felt him put his hand on my shoulder. , .

 

: , 2 3 , , to:

was made to do it. .

was seen to leave the house. , .

 

4.

had better ,

would rather, would sooner :

You had better go there at once. .

I would rather not tell them about it. .

said he would sooner stay at home. , .


 

- :

skate is pleasant. .

walk in the garden was pleasure. .

 

, . it c:

It was a pleasure to walk in the garden. .

It was difficult to refuse his re quest .

 

 

- :

Our intention is to charter steamer immediately. - .

 

Our plan is to go to the Crimea for the summer. .

 

 

- :

1. :

can speak English. - .

It may rain to-night. , .

must know her address. , , .

 

2. , . :

to begin ,

to continue ,

to like ,

to want

intend ,

to try ,

to hope ,

to promise ,

to decide

..:

The buyers want to know our terms of payment. .

We decided to spend the summer in the Crimea. .

I hope to see him soon. .


 

3. , -:

I am happy to hear it. .

is ready to go there. .

 

: (, ) :

Buyers to pay (= to pay) for the

freight on receipt of the shipping documents. .

The bill of lading to be considered

(= is to be considered) proof of the date

of shipment. .

 

- :

I told him to go there. .

asked me to wait a little. .

 

: , , , . , , , , , .

 

- :

1.

I have no desire to go there. .

We have no intention to order these goods. . .

There is every reason to suppose that the

cargo will arrive in time. , .

 

2. , , . , . , :

The question will be discussed at the

conference shortly to open in

Moscow (= which is shortly to open in

Moscow). , ( ) .

The amount to be paid (= which is to be paid)

includes the cost of packing. , , .


 

3.

the first,

the second,

the third,

the last,

..

, , . , , . :

is always the first to come to the Institute

(to come=who comes). .

Last year he was always the first to come

to the Institute (to come = who came). .

I am sure he will be the first to come to the

meeting (to come = who will come). , .

 

4. , , :

brought me a book to read. .

She gave him some water to drink. .

Give me something to eat. - .

 

: , :

brought me to read a book (: a book to read),

Give me to drink some water (: some water to drink).

, a book some water - brought give , to read to drink a book some water , , .

 

which whom , , . :

The children have a good garden in which

to play. , .

Give me a knife with which to cut the bread. , ( ).


 

. , , , :

The children have a good garden to play in. , .

Give me a knife to cut the bread with. , ( ).

 

- :

- :

I remained there to see what would happen. , , .

understand the importance of this event

you should know all the facts. , .

He worked hard not to lag behind the other

students. , .

 

in order,

so as that,

so as

, . c . , :

worked hard so as (in order) not to lag

behind the other students. , .

 

- :

too,

enough:

I don't know him well enough to ask him for help. , .

It is too cold to bathe to-day. , .

 

. in order so as . , .


 

: , ,

whom,

whose,

which,

what,

when,

how,

where

whether. :

How to do it is the question. , .

The difficulty was now (when, where) to cross

the river. , (, ) .

I don't know what to answer him. , .

He did not know whether to go there or not. , .

I can tell you how to do it. , .

I have a good idea (of) how to get this book. , .

 

-

to. , ,

so to speak,

needless to say,

to be quite frank,

to make matters worse, ()

to put it mildly (crudely), ()

to say the least,

to tell the truth

.

 

, , - , , .

To tell the truth, I'm sick and tired of this nonsense. , .

To put it mildly, she is just a bit inquisitive. , .

To make matters worse, it began to rain , .

When they found out I was not one of them,

so to speak, they politely turned from me and

ignored me. , , , .

, . .


; , .

 

, ( ), . , ; , .

 

.

doing having done

publishing having published

hearing having heard

 

.

, .

Excuse me for giving you so much trouble. , .

He was proud of winning so often. , .

 

to intend,

to insist,

to object,

to suggest,

 

hope,

intention,

plan,

prospect,

suggestion,

...

 

, .

Excuse me for having given you so much trouble. , .

He was proud of having won the game. , .


 

:

on (upon),

before,

after

After graduating from University my brother

started working. .

He produced his papers on being stopped

by a policeman. , .

 

to forget,

to remember,

to thank,

to deny,

to excuse,

to regret

She forgot telling him about it. , .

Excuse me for entering without knocking. , .

I don't remember ever seeing him. , - .

They regret letting you go there alone. , .

 


 

.

 

 

 

 

doing

being done

 

having done

 

having been done

 

, , . , . ( )

to want,

to require,

to need,

to deserve,

worth.

 

The grass needs cutting. .

The camera wanted adjusting. .

The child deserves praising. .

The film is worth seeing. .


 

- :

Dieting is very popular now. .

No progressing is regressing. , .

Travelling broadens your mind (if you have the mind). ( ).

Living there would slowly drive me crazy. .

Using a computer all the time can cause eyestrain. .

Finally meeting you, getting to know you, being with

you all these months has been the best thing that's

ever happened to me. , , , , - .

 

,

there is no,

it's no ...

There is no concealing the truth. .

It's no use worrying about them. .

As usual, there's no arguing with you, boss. , .

There is no accounting for the tastes of the rich. .

 

- ( ).

The biggest problem in life is choosing. .

His main occupation is playing on the computer. .

Creating is inventing, experimenting,

growing, taking risks, breaking rules,

making mistakes, and having fun. , , , , , .


 

-

, .

to begin

to start

to burst out

to go on

to keep (on)

to stop

to finish

to give up

Stop spreading the news! !

Go on working! !

The child burst out crying. .

Oh, please, stop asking me for definitions. I feel

like a walking dictionary. , , . .

 

, ,

to intend

to try

to attempt

can't help

I can't help admiring you! .

 

- :

Avoid making rash promises. .

I enjoy socializing with friends. .

We're looking forward to meeting you. .

Thanks for having me on such short notice. , .

I am tired of listening to your "ifs" and "nots". .

Are you fond of watching animals in the wild? ?

His friends accused him of being disloyal. .

 

:

need,

require,

want,

deserve

His suit needed cleaning and his brown moccasins

needed throwing away. , .


 

- :

, of,

Water has a wonderful way of calming. .

Lately he had developed a nervous habit of

pushing back his hair quickly. .

Who will take the trouble of telling me what's up? .

What's the most effective method of foreign

language teaching? ?

Patience is the art of hoping. .

Art is a way of learning things. .

 

- :

-

after,

before,

on,

upon,

at,

in,

since

After removing the checkbook from the drawer,

she wrote out a check. , .

Before entering the house, wipe your feet. , .

 

-

because of,

owing to,

for fear of,

for

For fear of looking funny I kept silent. , .


 

-

by,

without

Why do you speak to people without looking

at them? .

She kept her body in trim by going to a gym class

daily. .

They left the theatre without waiting for the end

of the show. .

It was not like my mother to come without calling

me first. .

 

-

in spite of

In spite of being busy, he accepted us. , .

 

-

in case

In case of being late, let us know. , .


I

: Participle I ( ) Participle II ( ).

 

Participle I :

() doing, learning, walking, ..

having done, having learned, having walked, ..

 

, , . Participle I , Participle I - ( , ).

I see (saw, will see) some students hurrying

to the University early in the morning. (, ) , .

He heard the rain beating against the window. , .

Mike spent the morning sorting out the mail. , .

 

Participle I

, .

Finally we found the path leading to the cottage. , .

There is a veranda running round the house. .

 

Participle I (, ).

 

Participle I ,

to arrive,

to enter,

to close,

to open,

to pass,

to cross, ..,

, , Participle I . Participle I .

Arriving at the office and passing into the room,

he saw visitors waiting for him. , , .

 

Participle I (pu, ).

Participle I , when while, .

While walking downtown, she examined the

shop windows. , .


 

Participle I

, .

Having run into difficulties, I count on your help

and understanding. , .

Having received an urgent message, he booked

a ticket for Madrid. , .

 

Participle I (, ).

 

 

: .

Participle I

 

doing

being done

having done

having been done

 

coming

-

having come

-

 

 

I .

I :

-

:

the falling waters

the setting sun

the whispering leaves


 

Participle I .

We got a paper announcing his will. , .

The singing, dancing, laughing people were

everywhere. , .

The falling leaves lay thick under our feet. .

The leaves falling on the ground reminded us of the

coming winter. , , .

 

: Participle I , .

:

Students, studying () a foreign

language, have to work hard.

( ) , , .

Students, who studied at our faculty, are working

in different educational establishments now.

( ) , , .

Students, who had studied at our faculty, came to

meet their teachers. ( , a

) , , , .

 

 

-

, , , .

Coming home, I had a surprise. () , .

Not knowing the language, I misunderstood the

taxi-driver. () , .

Being conservative, even old-fashioned, Henry

did not trust computers. () , , .

I stood looking around, breathing the air. ( ) , , .

He spoke as if trying to make me believe

him. ( ) , .


 

Ben came nearer, though still refusing to take part in

the game. () , .

I spent the day babysitting. ( ) , .

 

Participle I ,

to run,

to dance,

to pour, ...

to come . to come . Participle I , .

Everything came rushing back to me. .

Little Lizzy came running down the stairs. .

The rain came pouring down. .

The wind came whirling from the mountains. .

 

 

-

, .

I felt shame drenching me like hot water. .

He found her looking through old photographs. .

The cat watched the mouse eating cheese. .

.

He was seen playing golf in the afternoon. .

The waves could be heard beating against the cliffs. .

 


II

Participle II ( ) , :

- :

We have never lost touch with them. .

It took him a second to realize what had happened. , , .

 

- :

I am told it's wrong, (was told, ...) , . (, . .)

 

 

Participle II

. ,

Participle II

 

-

,

a faded rose a rose pinned on the dress

a fallen tree a tree fallen by the storm

a grown-up man a man grown-up in poverty

Forgotten memories rushed back to her with

force and clarity. .

 

-

to have (to get)

:

- , .

I've had my bathroom tiled. .

She must have her eyes tested. .

Get this prescription made at the chemist's. .

I had a computer connected to the Internet. .

As soon as I get the photos developed, I'll send them

to you. , .

Now tell me, honestly, do you think I ought to have

my face lifted? , ?


 

- , .

He had his car stolen. .

My neighbour had her window-pane hroken

yesterday. .

We had our dog killed in the accident. .

 

 

- .

Defeated, he did not look or feel

discouraged. (, ) , .

The child sat huddled in the armchair.

( ) , .

Changed into an evening frock, she looked gorgeous.

(, ) , .

Finished with his breakfast, he started looking through

the newspapers. () , .

She screamed as if badly hurt.

( ) , .

Driven by the necessity, he took a loan from the

bank. () , .

 

 

- .

My heart is broken. .

You look rested. .

Participle II . :

 

1. be acquainted (with) -

2. be bored (with, by)

3. be broken

4. be closed

5. be composed of

6. be crowded (with)

7. be devoted (to) -

8. be disappointed (in, with)

9. be divorced (from)

10. be done (with) /

11. be drunk (on)

12. be engaged (to)

13. be excited (about)

14. be exhausted (from) -

15. be finished (with) -


 

16. be frightened (of, by) -

17. be gone (from)

18. be hurt

19. be interested (in)

20. be involved (in)

21. be located in

22. be lost

23. be made of (from)

24. be married (to) ,

25. be mistaken

26. be pleased (with)

27. be prepared (for)

28. be qualified (for)

29. be related (to)

30. be satisfied (with)

31. be scared (of, by)

32. be shut

33. be spoiled

34. be terrified (of, by)

35. be tired (of, from)

36. be worried (about)