:

.. 2

. 5

May. 8

Can May (). 11

Must. 12

Have To. 15

Must Have To (). 18

Be To. 19

Will 21

Would. 23

Shall 24

Should. 25

Need. 28

Ought to. 31

Dare (To). 33

Had Better, Would Rather. 34

. 35

. 36


 

 

I. :

a) ,

b) ,

c) .

 

a) .

 

Marina teaches Latin. .

These students are working diligently. .

I have always been admiring this ballerina. .

 

b) .

 

We shall go there one day. .

They have done all they can. .

They will give her a chance, I'm sure. . .

 

c) ( ). - .

 

She is (looks, seems, feels, ...) smart. .

It gets (becomes, grows, ...) dark early in winter. .

I can hear you well. .

You must keep it a secret. .

He ought to join us. .

 

II.

can,

may,

must,

have to,

shall,

should,

will,

would,

need,

ought to,

dare . , .

,

,

,

,

, (!), .


. ( ). , must

,

,

,

He must be here at nine o'clock, not later. , . ()

He must be somewhere here, maybe in the lab. - . . ( )

He mustn't talk like that to the child, . ()

 

.

 

Ill .

 

a) , () . , "to" ( ought to, have to, need to be to).

 

b) ( have to, need to, be to) , . - , , ; -s . . do.

Must we do it right now? ?

Can (could) you help us? ?

You shouldn't go there at all. .

 

.

, . , can .

I can speak Dutch, -. ()

You can go to the concert if you like. , .()

 

could , .

I could drive when I was sixteen. , . ( )

I could drive if you're tired. , . ( )

I could pick you up tomorrow. . ( )


,

c) , . ( ).

 

She must have left by now. .

It must have been done long ago. .

You should have written to your mother. .

 


I. :

Can

Could

Could

( , )

( , )

( , )

She can play chess with me now.

She could play chess when she was six.

She could play chess with me now.

She could be playing chess now.

She could have played chess with me yesterday!

 

Can :

1. (, , ).

( )

Look, I can touch my toes. , .

( )

I could touch my toes when I was younger. , .

( )

I wish I could touch my toes. , .

I could touch my toes if I lost weight. , .

He can drive (play chess, speak Chinese, . .). ( , - ..)

Love can move mountains. .

Don't think you cannot. Think you can. , , , .

Here's a bit of advice from me. Take what you

can while you can. That's my motto. . , , . .

 

: , - - , was able to , , .

We were able to unload the steamer in twenty-four hours. 24 .

He was able to translate the article without a dictionary. .

She was able to do it without my help. () .

could, , .. could , .

 


 

2. , ( ), ( ).

Anyone can learn to use a word processor. .

It can be true. .

It can't be done. .

You can get this book in any bookshop. .

A dog can be a very pleasant company on long country walks. .

 

 

3. , , ( ).

Can (could) I borrow your pen? ?

You can join us. .

(prohibition)

No, you can't watch television so late. , .

 

4. .

Can you give Katy a lift? ?

I can't do that today. .

I'm afraid I can't babysit tomorrow. , .

 

5. , ( !, - "", " "); .

( )

- Can they really be here? They can't be here. - ? , !

( )

- Can they really be staying at this hotel? It can't be so. - ? , !

( )

He can't have said it. !

( )

They can't have been staying at this hotel for a month already! , !


 

: : to fail, to misunderstand, to misinterpret, to be unaware, to be unconscious, nobody, never, no, ..

Can he have failed to get there on time? .

Can they still be unaware of the danger? , .

She can't have misunderstood you. .

Can they have told nobody about it? ?

 

6. ( may ).

You could wait for us. .

They could have warned me. .


 

May

I. :

May

Might

Might

( , )

( , )

( , )

He may know it.

He said that he might do it.

He might help you.

He might be working.

He might have done it.

 

May :

1. ( can). .

One may come across such things in everyday life. .

He realises that it may be correct. , .

One day your dreams may all come true, one day

the sun will shine on you. , .

 

2. ( ).

May I go now? ?

May I use your telephone? ?

May I come in? ?

 

: Might .

Might I trouble you for the sugar? ?


 

3. ( , ). .

( )

She may be at work now. () .

( )

She may be working now. () .

( )

She may have done the work. () .

( )

She may have been doing the work for hours. () .

( )

It is never too late to be what you might have been. .

(George Eliot)

 

 

: Might .

( )

We might catch the train. .

 

may , .

He may have left Moscow. , (), ./ .

He may have lost your address. , (), . / .

He may not have come yet. , (), .

 

 

4. , , ( might ).

You might give me a hand. .

You might have given me a hand! It's too late now. ( ) ! .

You might as well wait for me. .

 

5. may . , :

 

a) ,

 

May success attend you! !

May you be happy in the life you've chosen! !


 

b) , : possible, likely, probable ( ).

 

It's possible it may rain soon. .

It's probable they may refuse. , .

 

c) , , , .

 

I wish we might get a ticket for tomorrow. , .

We fear she may be late. , .

We fear that he might lose his way in the darkness. , .

 

 

d) .

( )

Come nearer so that I may see you better. , .

( )

He shut the door so that she might not hear. , .

 

 

e)

( ).

Whenever you may come, you are always welcome. , .

Wherever he might travel, he was desperately homesick

and lonely. , .

Even though I may go, I'll always remember the good

old days in England. , .


Can May ()

I. :

Can

May

Could

Might

Could ,

Might ,

 

II. :

Can

May

1. (, )

2. ,

+

"can" .

,

3. ,

+

( )

, ,

4.

( ) ( )

5.

 

+

"might" , ( )

 

,

 

 

 

( )

 

:

You just can't count on

September weather, can you? ?

It's hot and sunny at the moment,

but it might well start snowing tomorrow. , .

You see, I may be old, but no one can pull

the wool over my eyes. No one at all. , , . .


Must

I. .

() ( )

must have to

 

She says she must leave. , .

She said she had to leave. , .

She says she'll have to leave. , .

 

Must .

 

I must stay in tonight and finish my essay. ( will have to)

 

Must .

 

probably

unlikely

evidently must.

certainly

most probably

 

They will probably come next week. .

The weather is unlikely to change. .

 

II. Must :

 

1. , , ( ).

 

I must go and make a phone call. .

You must do it and that's it. .

You must be honest with her, you really must. , .

 

must to have to :

I had to go there. ( , ) .

I shall have to go there. ( , ) .

 

2. .

 

You mustn't talk that way! () .

You mustn't treat her like that. () .


 

3. , , .

 

Schools must teach children such things. .

You must drive on the left when you go to England. , .

We must go and see Sally, she's in hospital. , .

 

4. (- ).

 

You must see a doctor about your leg. () .

I must lose weight. (, ) .

Things must change. ( ) .

You must see that film, it's terrific. ( ) .

 

 

5. , ( !). ( , , ).

 

, :

They must be here. , (), .

They must be waiting for us. , (), .

 

, :

They must have been here for a week. , (), .

They must have been waiting for an hour. .

 

, , must :

The weather will probably change (is likely to change) tomorrow. , (), .

The lecture will probably be interesting (is likely to be interesting). , , , .

 


 

"can" .

 

She must be here. , , .

Can she be here? ?

She can't be here! He , !

must have missed the bus. , , .

Can he have missed the bus? ?

He can't have missed the bus. , .

She can't have missed her classes. ( ), () .

Can she have failed to buy eggs? ?

 

: ( ), (perhaps, possibly, presumably, probably), must :

to fail,

to misunderstand,

to misinterpret,

to be unaware,

to be unconscious,

nobody,

never,

no, ...

 

They must have failed to find him. , (), .

She must have had no chance to meet them. , (), .

The boss must be unaware of the situation. , (), .

You must have misunderstood me. , (), .

 


Have To

: , .

have (has) to...

 

had to...

 

will (shall) have to...

 

 

,

 

Have to : , .

Have to :

( )

He is an invalid and has to have a nurse .

( )

She knew what she had to do. , .

( )

I shall have to reconsider my position. .

( )

He is always having to exercise judgement. .

( )

My impression was that he was having to force himself to talk. , .

( )

I have had to remind you of writing to her all this time. , .

( )

The women at Barford had had to be told that

an experiment was taking place that day. , .

( )

As a matter of fact, he said, I have been having to spend

some time with the research people. - : .

( - )

It wouldnt have been very nice for the Davidsons

to have to mix with all those people in the smoking-room. .

( - )

Having to work alone, he wanted all this time for research. , .


( . .)

If you broke it you would have to pay for it. , .

 

( . .)

If I hadn't passed the exam, I would have had to take it again. , .

 

 

do/did (Present Simple, Past Simple)

Does he have to have a nurse? ?

He doesnt have to have a nurse. .

Did he have to have a nurse? ?

He didnt have to have a nurse. .

 

shall/will (Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect)

Shall I have to reconsider my position? ?

I shall not have to reconsider my position. .

Will she be having to feed you lunch again

if she discovers you are not at school? , , ?

If she discovers you are not at school she will

not be having to feed you lunch again. , , .

Will they have had to finish the house by

winter? ?

They will not have had to finish the house

by winter. .

 

have/had (Present Perfect, Past Perfect)

Have I had to remind you of writing to her all

the time? , ?

I have not had to remind you of writing to her

all the time. , .

Had the women at Barford had to be told

that an experiment was taking place that day? , .

The women at Barford had not had to be told

that an experiment was taking place that day. , .

 

to be (Present Continuous, Past Continuous)

Is he always having to exercise judgement? ?

He isnt always having to exercise judgement. .

Was my impression that he was having to force

himself to talk? , ?

My impression was that he was not having to

force himself to talk. , .

 

 

, have to . , ,

(, ),

,

, .

 

must/have to , . , , , , .

 

In England you must drive on the left. ( /) .

In England you have to drive on the left. ( //) .

 

, .

 

I hate to say goodbye but I have to go home. () -, ( , , ) .

At least we don't have to go to work tomorrow,

thank goodness. ( ) ( , , ) .

 

 

got to (have got to) :

 

Sorry, I can't stay. I've got to go out again. , . .

I don't want to do this. But the teacher says we've got to. - . , .


 

Must Have To ()

must have to. , :

must , , .

have to, , .

I must try to lose weight. ( ) .

I have to try to lose weight. ( ) .

You must leave at once! ( . , ) .

You have to leave at once! ( . , .) .

 

 

:

have to .

Must .

You don't have to go there. / .

You mustnt go there. .


Be To

to be , , - - , - , , , , .

to be ( ) ; have to .

am/is/are to

was/were to

shall/will/have to

I am to meet the delegation.

.

He is to make a report.

.

They are to arrive tomorrow.

.

I was to meet the delegation.

. (, )

He was to make a report.

. (, )

They were to arrive yesterday. . (, )

I'll have to meet the delegation.

.

He will have to make a report.

.

They will have to arrive next week.

.

 

were

 

 

If anything were to happen, it would cost me my place all right.

- , .

 

 

 

1. to be to. , , . :

She was to meet us. . ( , .)

She was to have met us. . ( , .)


 

2. Be to ( ).

The book is to be got (had) in any shop. / . ( .)

He is to be congratulated on his success. .

 

3. . .

You are to report to the Dean. .

You are not to come here. .

At the beginning of the war every man under

forty was to serve in the armed forces. .

 

4. , , ( ).

It was to happen. .

They were never to meet again. .

 

5. , .

What am I to do? ?/ ?

Who is to question him? () ?

Am I to go there? ?

 

:

Shall I write? ?

Am I to write? (/) ?


 

Will

Will . will :

 

1. , , .

Will you give me a hand? , .

Will they go to the theatre with us? ?

Will you have a cup of coffee? ?

 

2. : , , , , .

I will fight for the right to live in freedom. .

Bert rang me up at the office today. I will

kill whoever gave him the number. I will

work out, I promise. . , . , .

If you will help us, it'll be great. ( ) , .

: Will ,

.

I will/shall not go to work tomorrow. .

We will/shall go to Thailand in summer. .

 

3. ( ).

He will keep losing his keys. .

Never mind, these things will happen. , .

 

4. ( . . ), - .

The orange won't peel. .

The wound won't heal. .

The car won't start. .

He's trying to open the jar, but the lid won't come off. , .

I've explained the situation over and over again,

but she just won't listen. , .

 

5. .

Whatever will be will be. , .

Truth will come out. .

After every storm the sun will shine. , .


 

6. , .

Someone has come. That will be Jane. - - . / .

Friends will be friends. .

Boys will be boys. And sometimes girls will be boys. . .


 

Would

Would , .

He said he would come soon. , . ( )

If I were you, I would do the same. , . ( )

She wouldn't agree to retire, no matter how tired

she was. , . ( )

It would be fine if you would stop quarrelling. , . ( )

 

:

1. , .

Would you let me borrow the car? , .

Would you come to the party with me? , .

 

2. , , .

Would you carry this for me? , .

What would you like to drink? ?

 

3. ( ).

He would lose his temper all the time. .

 

4. , ( ).

He would come and stay with us every Sunday. .

 

5. , .

Someone is knocking. That would surely be Tom. - . .

 

6. .

I wish you would stop crying. , .

She would have left the house long ago if her

father would allow it. But he would not allow it. , . .


 

Shall

.

:

 

1. ( 2 3 ).

Tell her that she shall have the books tomorrow. , . ( )

You shan't have any cause for complaint. .

 

2. , ( 2 3 ).

You shall be punished. .

She shall pay for it, she shall answer for

her actions. , .

 

3. , , .

What shall I do next? ?

Shall we start? ?

Shall we help you? ?

Let's stay here, shall we? , ?


 

Should

Should

I. should , .

She said we should go there next year. , . ( )

If I had such a chance, I should take it. , . ( )

 

II. should , , , , , .

You should help him. ( , ) . (, )

You should do your best. ( , ) . (, )

You should have given up this idea long ago. . (, )

You should nurse your dreams and protect

them through tough times. . ()

You should look after your money,

and your money will look after you. .

They say you should be careful what you wish

for, because you might just get it. , , .

"There's a school of thought," I said, "that

parents shouldn't criticize children.

They should encourage instead. You know,

people rise to other people's expectations. And

when you criticize, it just means you're expecting

failure." , - : . . , . , , .

 

: should , , why, what, how, who(m), I'm sorry:

Why should I go there? ?

How should I know? !?


 

.

You should be friendly to people. . ( , )

You should be working now, not polishing

your nails! , . ( )

Children should be learning, not earning. , .

You should have done it. ( ) .

 

should , , .

You should have come. . ( )

Now, you have become the person you

should have always been. , .

 

, .

You shouldn't have come. . ( )

 

 

III. should , . , , :

 

1. , , it : necessary, desirable, advisable, recommended, surprising.

It is advisable you should make up with your

parents. , .

 

1: it is possible, it is likely, it is probable, may + .

It is likely that it may snow soon. , .

 

.

Is it possible that one should not know the results? , - .

 

2: it is (high, about) time...

It is (high, about) time we should have a snack. .


 

2. .

a) , (insist, suggest, propose, order, demand, arrange).

She ordered that everybody should leave the room. , .

 

b) , lest ( ...) so that ( ...).

We feared lest they should get lost. , .

I'm so much afraid that I should be refused. , .

 

3. , :

a) , lest ( ...).

Let's talk it over lest there should be any

misunderstanding. , .

 

May (might) + :

Come nearer that I may hear you well. , .

 

 

b) , though, whatever, whoever, whenever, . . .

However hard it should rain, we shall go. , .

Whatever he should say, I will not change my

mind. , .

Whenever you should come, you are most

welcome. , .

 

 

c) .

If you should see her, say a big hello to her. , .

 

:

Should you see her, say a big hello to her. , .

 

should.

Should you change your mind, no one will blame

you. , .


Need

I. .

need TO NEED TO + .

 

need to

needed to

shall/will need to

I need to go there.

.

I needed to go there.

.

I shall/will need to go there.

.

Do I need to go there?

?

Need I go there?

/ ?

( . .)

 

Did you need to go there?

/ ?

Shall I

need to go there?

Will you

/ ?

You needn't go there.

/ .

You didn't need to go there.

.

You won't need to go there.

.

 

He needs to do it now. .

I need to think it over. .

Does he need to do it now? / ?

He doesn't need to do it now. / .

 

, ( must can). need not, need I?

Need I help you? You needn't do it. - ? , .

Need they stay here? They needn't stay here. - ? , .

 

need to :

I need to do it now. .

I did not need to do it. / .

Do you need to do it now? / ?

We don't need to do it now. / .

You will need to do it. .

Would they need to do it? .. ( ) ?


 

: did not need to (go) need not have (gone).

 

Need not have (gone) : , -, (.e. !). Did not need to (go) , , .

 

I needn't have bought a French-English

dictionary. / - . ( .)

I didn't need to buy a French-

English dictionary. - ( , .)

 

 

?

?

needn't have bought

didn't need to buy

 


 

II. Need , . must have to.

You need to work much harder. .

She needs to improve her handwriting. .

Do I need to get a visa? / ?

 

Do not need to need not , - . do not have to.

You don't need to wear glasses all the time. / .

He can go now: he does not need to wait. : / .

 

you don't need to you needn't (don't need to, Do I need to...?). :

 

1. Must I...? Do I have to...?

Must I do it right away? No, you needn't do

it now; leave it until tomorrow if you like. / ? , ; , .

 

: , need must:

Need I go there at once? ?

Yes, you must. , .

 

 

2. , - .

You needn't imagine that I don't know what

you have been doing. , .

 

3. , - .

You needn't give me a lift on your scooter

I'm much too heavy anyway. .

- , , .


 

Ought to

owe , . ought , , .

 

I really ought to go and have my eyes tested. / .( , .)

Ben really ought to see his parents more often. / . ( )

They ought to ban smoking in public places. / . ( )

 

I. to. .

 

You ought to do it. / .( )

You ought to have done it. / .( , , )

 

II. should, - , ought , , , .

 

You ought to see a doctor. / . ( , )

You oughtn't to smoke so much. / .

She ought to look after her children better. / .

You ought to ask for your money back. / .

 

III. Should ought to . must/have to, , should ought to , : :

You shouldn't carry a lot of money with you. .

People oughtn't to leave their bags unattended. .

You should help old people. .

He ought to take up some sport. / - .

, .


 

Should ought to

 

Should , s, ought to .

Ought to , .

 

:

You should go. . ( )

You ought to go. . ( . . , . .)


 

Dare (To)

need dare - , dare (to) do something. .

 

:

I daren't do it.

I don't dare to do it. .

 

: to dare.

She daren't go there alone. / .

Don't you dare throw it away. .

 

dare (to)

dared (to)

shall/will dare (to)

Nobody dares to tell the truth.

/ .

Who dares to look at it?

?

Nobody dared (to) tell the truth.

/ .

Who dared (to) look at it?

?

Nobody will dare (to) tell the truth.

/ .

Who will dare to look at it?

.

 

 

( "to")

We dared to come.

.

We didn't dare do it.

.

 

: I daresay ... , , - :

 

I daresay you are feeling tired after your long journey. / // .


Had Better, Would Rather

 

Had better should . , . , " , ." had better, -. ( , , .)

 

You'd (had) better budget your time carefully. () .

You'd (had) better give it a second thought. () .

You'd (had) better stay in bed not to make

your cold get worse. () , .

 

Would rather "", . would rather not , " ".

 

Molly would rather live alone. .

What would you rather do? ?

 

I'd rather (would rather) + , , - .

 

I'd rather you didn't behave in such a way. , .

I'd rather the show started a little earlier. , .

 

I'd rather + , , , .

 

I'd rather you hadn't gone there. , .

I'd rather they had gone out more often. , .


 

. .

 

Someone is sitting in the garden. I wonder who that is? Perhaps it's Pam.

- . ? .

It is Pam.

.

 

 

 

It will be Pam.

.

It must be Pam.

.

It should be Pam.

.

It may be Pam.

.

It might be Pam.

.

It could be Pam.

.

It ought to be Pam.

.

It couldn't be Pam.

.

It can't be Pam.

.

It won't be Pam.

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


I think it's Pam.

I don't think it's Pam.

 

It is not Pam.

.

 

 

 


.

 

can ,

may

must

have to

be to - -

will ,

would ,

shall ,

should

neet to

ought to

dare to -